One doesn’t have to look very far to understand the complexities that disorders encapsulate; simply point to one moment of unrest and a map opens up that lays bear the reasons and intersecting factors that lead up to its eruption and to its end. ‘Anatomy of a Coup’ seeks to navigate this map, dissect its twists and turns and, understand why any of these events could happened – all in the uniquely complicated situation of the 1977 protests in Pakistan.


Chronology March – May 1977 (1977) 30(2) Pakistan Horizon

‘Pakistani Police Wound 20 in Riots Over Arrest of Opposition Leaders’ The New York Times (19 March 1977) <> accessed 23 April 2019

What Goes Around: The Movement Against Bhutto’ Dawn Sunday Magazine (August 31 2014)> accessed 29thJanuary 2019

Ahmed I, ‘The Pakistan Garrison State: Origins, Evolution, Consequences (1947-2011)’ (OUP 2013)

Ali T, Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State (Penguin Books 1983)

Amin T, ‘1977 Coup D’etat in Pakistan’ Pakistan Journal of History and Culture 23(2) (2007)

Borders W, ‘Rioting in Pakistan Is Said to Endanger the Bhutto Government’ The New York Times (15 April 1977). accessed 23 April 2019

Borders W, ‘Bhutto Puts 3 Cities Under Martial Law’ The New York Times (22 April 1977) <> accessed 13 February 2019

Borders W, ‘Bhutto’s Severity Takes Pakistan Toward a Decisive Confrontation’ The New York Times (25 April 1977) <> accessed 25 February 2019

Borders W, ‘Pakistan Sizes Foes of Bhutto in Raids’ The New York Times (24 April 1977) <> accessed 19 April 2019

Kamm H, ‘Opposition Demonstrations in Pakistani Cities Heighten Crisis Mood’ The New York Times (15 March 1977) <> accessed 23 March 2019

Khan H, ‘Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan’ (2nd edn OUP 2001)

Khan M A and Kokab R U, ‘Religious Motivation behind Political Movement: A Case Study of Nizam-e-MustafaMovement’ Pakistan Vision 19(1)

Weinbaum M G, ‘The March 1977 Elections in Pakistan: Where Everyone Lost’ Asian Survey 17(1) 1977 University of California Press


How the night came, ‘BLACK II: SWAN’, BLACK

Kai Engel,  ‘Downfall’, Satin

Kai Engel, ‘November’, Chapter Four/Fall

Lee Rosevere, ‘Storm Horizon’, Blue Dot RMX

Turku, Nomads of the Silk Roads, ‘Muhabet’, Alleys of Istanbul