This podcast investigates the use of para-military policing techniques in protests. It aims to understand the origins of these methods and reasons behind their increasing use. The latter half explores the use of these methods in the USA at protests such as Ferguson.


Riya Bains is pursuing a Legal Practice Course from January 2019 and graduated from Warwick Law School in 2018.



  • Jefferson, ‘The case against para-military policing’
  • N. Redekop, ‘Beyond Control: a mutual respect approach to protest crowd-police relations’
  • Balko, ‘Overkill: the rise of para-military raids in America’


  • Atkinson, ‘Do not resist’

Journal articles

  • B. Kraska, ‘Militarisation and policing- its relevance to 21stCentury Police’
  • McMichael, ‘Pacification and police: a critique of the police militarization thesis’
  • Wall, ‘Police Atmotechnics: Crowded Affects & the Policing of Protest’
  • Glass, ‘The London G20 Protests: A Bruising Experience?’
  • Passavant, ‘Policing protest in the post Fordist City’
  • Jefferson, ‘Pondering para-militarism: a question of standpoints?’
  • Hoggett and Stott, ‘The role of crowd theory in determining the use of force in public order policing’
  • Reicher, ‘An integrated approach to crowd psychology and public order policing’
  • Netpol, ‘What Netpol’s new report says about the policing of anti-fracking protests in 2017’
  • A.J Waddington, ‘Toward paramilitarism? Dilemmas in policing civil disorder’
  • Della Porta and Reiter, ‘Policing protest the control of mass demonstrations in Western Democracies’
  • Vitale, ‘From negotiated management to command and control: how New York Police Department policies protests’
  • McCarth and McPhail, ‘Policing Protests’
  • Martin, ‘The riot act: evidence that a paramilitary police response actually ramps up violence’
  • Lieblich and Shinar, ‘The case against police militarization’
  • Dansky, ‘Police militarisation is out of control, there is no oversight’
  • Rivas, ‘Militarisation of the police force: causes and the alternative’
  • Bolduc, ‘Global insecurity: how risk theory gave rise to global police militarization’
  • Truner, ‘Public servants or police soldiers? An analysis of opinions on the militarization of policing from police executives, law enforcement and members of the 114thCongress US house of representatives’

News articles

  • Benchaabane, ‘Protesters march on street, at police headquarters in Ferguson’
  • The Guardian, ‘Police in Ferguson gave a lesson in how not to respond to protests’
  • Van Der Zee, ‘G20 Climate Camp anger simmers in the kettle’
  • The Guardian, ‘Police used kittling tactic too readily on protest march’
  • Lewis, ‘A history of police kettling’
  • Edwards, ‘G20 to be most expensive police operation in British history’
  • Ordre, ‘The British public would not trust or accept armed police’
  • Ordre, ‘Now is not the time for police to use water cannon and baton rounds’
  • Al Jazeera Staff, ‘Congress scrutinizes police militarization before planned Ferguson protest’
  • BBC, ‘Police clash with G20 protestors’
  • Laville, ‘Police tactics at fracking protests need urgent review, says MEP’
  • Jones, J. Percival and P. Lewis, ‘G20 protests: riot police clash with demonstrators’
  • Ordre, ‘The challenges of policing protest’
  • Halliday, ‘Tensions rise at fracking site in UK after police and activists clashes’
  • Chopra, ‘Police Militarisation’
  • Dodd, ‘Police warn big budget cuts will lead to paramilitary force’
  • Stamper, ‘Paramilitary policing from Seattle to Occupy Wall Street’
  • Linddara, ‘The Ferguson Effect’ a theory that’s warping the American crime debate, explained’


  •  Dr Illan rua Wall
  • Dr Vern Redekop
  • Dr Peter Kraska

Background music

  • Do Not Resist (movie and trailer)
  • ‘Questioned and tense’ by Winjer 3


  • From Do Not Resist:
  • Senator Claire McCaskgill
  • James Comey
  • Police attitude to military style training